sábado, 19 de agosto de 2017

Consecuencias de estar en la OTAN

Creo que nadie profundiza en la raíz del problema, al entrar la otan en la coalición en guerra contra los islamicos , ha involucrado a todos en un conflicto armado.  Y lo del jueves fue una consecuencia. Estamos implicados en una cantidad de conflictos que en realidad nos ocultan.
Yo no pude votar en el referéndum para entrar en la OTAN. Y EN LOS mass-media no lo mencionan.

An introduction to MicroPython

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The MicroPython project is an open source implementation of Python 3 that includes a small subset of Python standard libraries, and is optimised to run on microcontrollers with constrained environments like limited ROM, RAM and processing power. It came about after a successful Kickstarter campaign by Damien George.

MicroPython Kickstarter campaign
Fig. 1: MicroPython Kickstarter campaign

What MicroPython is

MicroPython includes the standard Python interpreter that runs on small embedded development boards. With MicroPython you can write Python scripts to control hardware. For example, you can make LEDs blink, communicate with a temperature sensor, control motors and publish a sensor reading on the Internet. It is worth noting that the firmware for such embedded devices is generally coded in Assembly, C or C++, but by using MicroPython you can achieve almost the same results as with high-level Python.

What MicroPython is not

Unlike the desktop version of Python, MicroPython is a stripped-down version for microcontrollers; therefore it does not support all Python libraries and functionalities. In the world of microcontrollers, the firmware is directly burned to the ROM (also known as program memory), and there is no file system. MicroPython implements a minimal type of file system directly on the flash memory of the microcontrollers. If the device has 1MB or more of storage, then it will be set up (upon first boot) to contain a file system. This file system uses FAT format and is stored in the flash memory by MicroPython firmware. This gives you the benefit of being able to access, read and write files within the main Python program for flexible storage operations.

There are two files that are treated specially by ESP8266 when it starts up: boot.py and main.py. The former script is executed first (if it exists), and once it completes, the latter script is executed. You can create these files yourself and populate these with the code that you want to run when the device starts up. boot.py generally contains boot parameters like whether to have serial debugging on or off, which Wi-Fi AP to connect, main code to run and so on. Looping stays in main.py, for example, the logic for blinking LEDs.

It is also worth noting that microcontrollers are generally programmed in C, wherein direct registers are accessed and manipulated to use the peripherals of microcontrollers.Firmware code is cross-compiled and built for the target microcontroller architecture, and is flashed using a suitable programmer. MicroPython abstracts all these steps, but the constraint here is the real-time feature of microcontrollers, in general. Hence, MicroPython is not suitable for strict real-time applications.

Boards supported by MicroPython

There are numerous boards/chipsets supported by MicroPython, and more are expected to do so in the near future as the project matures. The current board support list is given below.


This is the official MicroPython board, which comes with full MicroPython support out-of-the-box. It features STM32F405RGT6 ARM Cortex M4 based processor. MicroPython supports APIs for almost all hardware peripherals of the chip like GPIO, I2C, SPI and UART.

The pyboard
Fig. 2: The pyboard


MicroPython support for the low-cost Wi-Fi development ESP8266 microcontroller is excellent. Wi-Fi and Internet accessibility are made available within MicroPython using a special network library. There is also a Web based read-evaluate-print-loop (REPL) that allows you to run MicroPython code on ESP8266 using a Web browser within a local network.

ESP8266 microcontroller chip
Fig. 3: ESP8266 microcontroller chip

BBC micro:bit.

This is a new board aimed at teaching kids computer programming. Using MicroPython on micro:bit, you can access the board's peripherals like LEDs and accelerometers.

BBC micro:bit
Fig. 4: BBC micro:bit


The full list of supported boards can be found at MicroPython website.

Library stacks supported by MicroPython

Python supports a variety of libraries on desktop computers, but porting these directly to a microcontroller is not an easy task as these are not optimised for running on machines with less RAM. Instead of making existing useful Python libraries available in MicroPython, these are stripped in order to be better optimised to run on constrained hardware. Current libraries supported by MicroPython are named with the initial u, which stands for Micro

Library implementation:
• ucollections – collection and container types
• uhashlib – hashing algorithm
• uheapq – heap queue algorithm
• uio – input/output streams
• ujson – JSON encoding and decoding
• uos – basic operating system services
• ure – regular expressions
• usocket – socket module
• ustruct – pack and unpack primitive data types
• utime – time-related functions
• uzlib – zlib decompression

Functionalities specific to MicroPython implementation are available in the following libraries:
• machine – for functions related to the board
• micropython – to access and control MicroPython internals
• network – for network configuration
• uctypes – to access binary data in a structured way

Following libraries are specific to pyboard:
• pyb – for functions related to the board
• Time-related functions
• Reset-related functions
• Interrupt-related functions


The full list of supported libraries can be found at MicroPython website.

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Remote Hacking | Security Threats | Blockchain and IoT

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175,000 IoT Cameras can be Remotely Hacked Thanks to Flaw, says Security Researcher

Over 100,000 internet-connected security cameras contain a "massive" security vulnerability that allows them to be accessed via the open web and used for surveillance, roped into a malicious botnet, or even exploited to hijack other devices on the same network.

Representing yet more Internet of Things devices that are exposed to cyber attackers, vulnerabilities have been uncovered in two cameras in Chinese manufacturer Shenzhen Neo Electronics' NeoCoolCam range. Researchers at Bitdefender say the loopholes mean it's trivial for outsiders to remotely attack the devices and that 175,000 of the devices are connected to the internet and vulnerable. Between 100,000 and 140,000 are detectable via the Shodan IoT device search engine alone. (Read More)

From Hacked Casino Fish Tanks to Malicious Links, Cybersecurity Threats are Everywhere and Startups are Raking in the Dough

Cybersecurity isn't exactly new, but it's becoming one of the hottest areas on the startup scene.With global malware attacks like WannaCry garnering widespread attention and press coverage, and companies and consumers growing increasingly worried about how security threats are rapidly evolving and diversifying, investors and entrepreneurs alike are seeing big opportunities.

"Security is a space where you see a lot of startups," said Sarah Guo, an investor at Greylock Partners. "Everything is increasingly internet connected and if it's internet connected, it's vulnerable.

There's a lot of new opportunities, and I personally believe the market will grow for a long time." (Read More)

How Blockchain Could Revolutionize IoT Security

Any doubt that Internet of Things (IoT) devices have the ability to wreak digital havoc was removed during the last quarter of 2016 when IoT-device powered Mirai botnets handily disrupted internet service.

To find out why IoT devices are coming under attack, researchers at the University of Portsmouth analysed 55 systems for managing the IoT and found a majority had neither support for security or privacy, nor did they implement robust controls. Why is this the case?

In this University of Portsmouth press release, Paul Fremantle, a member of the University's School of Computing, says, "There aren't really strong incentives for manufacturers to update their systems to keep you safe…." Fremantle adds another likely reason is that IoT devices do not have enough processing capability and/or memory to implement strong security solutions. (Read More)


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Seeeduino or Arduino?

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Seeed has recently updated its open source development board Seeeduino V4 into a V4.2 model with shrunken price tag — just under $7 — for what's essentially a full-sized Arduino Uno clone with a superset of the Uno's expansion capabilities.

Like the Seeeduino V4, the V4.2 is built around the same ATmega328P MCU (clocked at 16MHz) that's used on the Arduino Uno, and offers an Uno-compatible topside expansion bus. Additionally, the Seeduino V4 and V4.2 both supplement the Uno's I/O capabilities with connectors for interfacing with Grove modules: two on the V4, and three on the V4.2. Both boards are 115 x 78 x 25mm in size and have mounting holes that match those of the Uno.

Both Seeeduino models are also compatible with the Arduino Uno bootloader, and can be programmed and powered through their micro-USB connectors. Power can also be supplied through the dedicated power jack, which supports 7 to 15V DC input.

Seeed Studio lists these differences between both Seeeduino V4x boards and the Arduino Uno:

  • Use of a micro-USB port for powering and programming the board
  • On-board Grove module interface connectors
  • A switch for choosing between 3.3V and 5V DC power input
  • Use of a DC-to-DC converter instead of an LDO (Low DropOut regulator), for enhanced efficiency
  • Various improvements to circutry

The Seeeduino V4.2's schematic and other documentation are available for download from its wiki page.

What's your favourite?

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jueves, 17 de agosto de 2017

5.111SC Principles of Chemical Science (MIT)

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This course provides an introduction to the chemistry of biological, inorganic, and organic molecules. The emphasis is on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. One year of high school chemistry is the expected background for this freshman-level course. The aims include developing a unified and intuitive view of how electronic structure controls the three-dimensional shape of molecules, the physical and chemical properties of molecules in gases, liquids and solids, and ultimately the assembly of macromolecules as in polymers and DNA. Relationships between chemistry and other fundamental sciences such as biology and physics are emphasized, as are the relationships between the science of chemistry to its applications in environmental science, atmospheric chemistry and electronic devices.  Acknowledgements Professor Drennan would like to acknowledge the contributions of MIT Lecturer Dr. Elizabeth Vogel Taylor, Professor Sylvia Ceyer, and Professor Robert Silbey to the development of this course and its materials.
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10 Most Funded Crowdfunded Projects

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New tech is developed and released every day. Our global technological development has been rising at an exponential rate for decades, with each new breakthrough bringing us forward by massive strides. Many of those new developments come from the private sector, from individuals and small teams developing new ideas that change our world in countless ways. The public sector encourages this, with many companies even sponsoring contests to encourage new innovations.

Technology isn't the only field that develops in unusual and surprising ways all the time. A fairly recent innovation that has changed the playing field for acquiring funding for new ideas. Crowdfunding started small, but exploded quickly into something that now generates billions of dollars per year for savvy inventors and entrepreneurs.

Getting your new idea to the market can present a significant challenge, unless you have significant personal capital to bootstrap your idea. With the advent of crowdfunding, anyone with a strong idea and a stronger pitch can generate potentially huge amounts of startup capital. Sometimes into the seven-figures. It would be impossible to get a small business loan anywhere near that amount, allowing crowdfunded projects to often launch right from the start into revenue levels that many small businesses never dream of seeing.

Once funding succeeds, however, the challenges do not stop there. Depending on the product and the industry, manufacturing issues, quality problems, even the logistics of distribution can arise and bring a million-dollar crowdfunded project to its knees even before all of the rewards have been paid out to backers. While many highly funded projects result in hugely successful businesses that thrive and grow long after initial funding, the below list shows clearly that doesn't always hold true.

Take a look below and find out who won their way onto the top ten most crowdfunded projects of all time, and what happened to the companies and products after the completion of the project.



OpenElectronics?d=yIl2AUoC8zA OpenElectronics?d=qj6IDK7rITs OpenElectronics?i=jiwNPmNf_qs:a-mVj58Qd4 OpenElectronics?i=jiwNPmNf_qs:a-mVj58Qd4 OpenElectronics?i=jiwNPmNf_qs:a-mVj58Qd4 OpenElectronics?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 OpenElectronics?d=7Q72WNTAKBA
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Chiplicity: The Open Source Hardware Development Framework for IC Designes

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Efabless corporation, an online design platform and marketplace for community-developed intellectual property (IP) and integrated circuits (ICs), has introduced Chiplicity, an open source framework for community members to create, share, make derivatives of and commercialize mixed-signal ICs.

"Chiplicity is a first of its kind and extends the efabless electronics community engineering concept from IP to ICs," affirms Mohamed Kassem, efabless' co-founder and chief technology officer. "We make chip design and productizing chips simple and broadly accessible. That's why we call it Chip-licity."

Efabless developed Chiplicity as a development kit for integrated circuits, similar to hardware or software design kits known as HDKs or SDKs. Chiplicity includes all the tools needed for a full design cycle to design, verify, validate and prototype mixed-signal products, from idea to completed manufacturable GDSII files.

It offers the efabless global community of IC designers a set of related library components — an open source chip called Hydra, analog IP ready to wire, a standardized pad frame and a serial interface (SPI). A soft variant of the PicoRV32 RISC-V CPU core, developed by open source active contributor Clifford Wolf, is part of the efabless digital library located in the beta version of CloudV.

Over time, community members will be able to create and verify increasingly complex mixed-signal ASICs. Chiplicity will offer a flexible pad frame generator and additional analog and digital IP, including a variety of microprocessor cores, additional open source IP and community-developed analog IP blocks. Efabless also will offer open source test boards as library components to validate custom analog circuit designs.

Visit efabless.com to learn more about Chiplicity.

OpenElectronics?d=yIl2AUoC8zA OpenElectronics?d=qj6IDK7rITs OpenElectronics?i=rKdaGof7WEE:ZPqLschHGw OpenElectronics?i=rKdaGof7WEE:ZPqLschHGw OpenElectronics?i=rKdaGof7WEE:ZPqLschHGw OpenElectronics?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 OpenElectronics?d=7Q72WNTAKBA
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